Page Contributors: Tiffany Lambright, MPH, RN, and Anita Allouche, RN, BSN, BA
- Speech Disorders caused by difficulties with the production of sounds, with articulation or pronunciation, stuttering, or vocal problems.
- Language disorders caused by problems understanding language (receptive language disorder) or difficulty communicating thoughts, ideas and/or feelings in words (expressive language disorder).
- Language delay is when a child’s develops language in the expected order but at a slower rate than average.
- Different types and causes of Childhood Speech & Language Disorders (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2015)
- Speech and Language Delay and Disorder - University of Michigan Health System website
- Speech development by age (table)
Consider a referral for speech/language development evaluation for any child who (ASHA, 2013):
- doesn’t smile or interact with others (birth–3 months),
- doesn’t babble (4–7 months),
- makes only a few sounds or gestures (eg, pointing; 7–12 months),
- says few words (12–18 months),
- doesn’t understand what others say (7 months–2 years),
- doesn’t put words together (18 months–2 years),
- has speech that is unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners (2–3 years),
- struggles to say sounds or words (2½–3 years).
Assessment & Screening
- USPSTF, 2006: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschdv.htm -- from 2006 - update currently in progress
- Screening for Speech and Language Delay in Preschool Children (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2006)
- Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: an algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. (AAP, 2006) -- Open Access AAP Policy Statement *Includes table of screening tools: AAP Council on Children with Disabilities.
- Leung, A K, & Kao, C P. (1999). Evaluation and management of the child with speech delay. American Family Physician, 59(11), 3121-8, 3135.
- Speech-Language Impairment: How to Identify the Most Common and Least Diagnosed Disability of Childhood, 2008
- Bishop, D V. (2014). Ten questions about terminology for children with unexplained language problems. International journal of language and communication disorders, 49(4), 381-415. -- Article on diagnosis and and terminology used to describe language disorders (Open Access)
- Schonhaut, Armijo, Schönstedt, Alvarez, & Cordero, (2013). Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in term and preterm infants. Pediatrics, 131(5), e1468-e1474